PERU TRAVEL PLANNER
National name: República del Perú
CAPITAL: Lima (founded on 1535)
With an area of 1,285,216 square km, Peru is the third-largest country in
South America after Brazil and Argentina, ranking it amongst the world's 20
largest nations. Peru also holds sway over the sea up to 200 miles from the
Peruvian coast and has territorial rights to an area of 60 million hectares in
POPULATION: 28’220.764 Habitants.
Ethnicity/race: Amerindian 45%, mestizo 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese,
Chinese, and other 3%
Peru is a nation of mixed ethnic origins. Throughout its history, Peru has been
the meeting ground for different nations and cultures. The indigenous population
was joined 500 years ago by the Spaniards. As a result of this encounter, and
later enriched by the migration of African blacks, Asians and Europeans,
Peruvian man emerged as the representative of a nation whose rich ethnic mix is
one of its leading characteristics.
COAST: 2.414 km
PORTS: Callao, Chimbote, Chiclayo, Matarani, Trujillo, Puerto Maldonado,
Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas.
BORDERING COUNTRIES: Ecuador,
Peru is divided into 25 regions and the province of Lima. Each region has an
elected government composed of a president and council that serve four-year
terms. These governments plan regional development, execute public investment
projects, promote economic activities, and manage public property. The province
of Lima is administered by a city council.
13.- La Libertad
17.- Madre de Dios
22.- San Martín
The official currency in Peru is the Nuevo Sol (S/.), which is divided into
100 centimos. The currency includes coins for 5, 10, 20 and 50 centimos and 1, 2
and 5 sol coins. There are bills in the denomination of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200
Other languages: 3.0%
Foreign languages: 0.2% As part of its rich cultural tradition, Peru features
many different languages. Although Spanish is commonly spoken across the country,
Quechua is a major legacy of the Inca empire, and is still spoken with regional
dialects in many parts of Peru. In addition, other languages are spoken such as
Aymara (in Puno) and a startling variety of dialects in the Amazon jungle, which
are divided up into 15 linguistic families and 38 different languages.
INDEPENDENCE DAY: July 28th
TIME ZONE: The time in Peru is five hours behind Greenwich Mean Time
MEMBERS OF: APEC, CAN, FAO, G-15, INTERPOL UNION LATINA, OEA. ONU, ANASUR,
The Republic of Peru limits the north with Colombia and Ecuador on the east
by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia and Chile to the south and west by the
The country has three natural regions: the coast, the mountains - or Andean
region, and the jungle - or Amazon.
200 miles offshore is a narrow strip which varies in width between 30 and
150 km including the territorial sea, islands, sandy deserts and valleys of the
Coast culture. It has a very arid climate with temperatures between 15 and 20
The coast is divided into three sectors: North, Central and South, with the
Northern Tropical Semi-type (Tumbes, Piura), and from Lambayeque to Tacna:
Sub-Tropical. Both representing 12% of the surface
Planning Area is considered that is above 800 and 1000 m and is
characterized by a morphology heavily eroded, with canyons, plateaus of
different altitudes, in the Sierra the temperature decreases with altitude and
has large amplitudes daily rainfall is low and steppe vegetation are the main
cities: Cusco, Puno, Huancavelica, Cajamarca, Apurimac and Junin, which
represents 20% of the area.
From the point of view there are two areas Morphological (High and Low).
Upper part Pongos excel, consisting of waters that descend from the Andes, The
Highlands have the best soils and are formed by Terrazos. In the jungle the
climate is hot and humid. Its main cities are: Ucayali, Loreto, Madre de Dios,
Tarapoto representing 60% of the area.
CLIMATE: Peru’s geography naturally leads to a varied climate. Much of
the western coastal plain consists of dry deserts, while the Andean highlands
range from temperate to frigid. The jungle regions of the east are tropical and
humid, with distinct rainy seasons.
In the Coast, the weather varies, with a damp and cloudy winter that runs from
June to September. Average temperatures come in at 14°C. During the summer,
temperatures can peak at 28°C or over.
In the Highlands, the sun shines all year round during the morning, but
temperatures descend at night, averaging 5°C.
The climate in the Amazon jungle is tropical all year round. In both regions,
the rain season runs from December through April.
Lima is a city that features a moderate climate, ranging from a light drizzle in
winter to a warm summer.Average temperature in summertime -from mid-December to
mid-March is 25 / 28°C. Winter, which usually features overcast skies and high
humidity, has temperatures ranging from 10 to 16°C.
Highest Point: Nevado Huascaran (22,205 feet), located in the Cordillera Blanca
range of the Andes (read more about the highest mountains in Peru)
Major Mountain Ranges: Andes
Major Rivers: Amazon, Ucayali, Madre de Dios, Marañón.
Currency: The official currency in Peru is the Nuevo Sol (S/.), which is
divided into 100 centimos. The currency includes coins for 5, 10, 20 and 50
centimos and 1, 2 and 5 sol coins. There are bills in the denomination of 10,
20, 50, 100 and 200 soles.
GDP/PPP (2011 est.): $301.5 billion; per capita $10,000.
Real growth rate:6.9%. Inflation: 3.4%. Unemployment: 7.9% in metropolitan Lima;
widespread underemployment. Arable land: 2.88%. Agriculture: asparagus, coffee,
cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges,
pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mango,
barley, medicinal plants, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans, poultry,
beef, dairy products, fish, guinea pigs.
Labor force: 15.90 million (2011 est.); agriculture .7%, industry 23.8%,
services 75.5% (2005).
Industries: mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication;
petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas; fishing and fish processing,
textiles, clothing, food processing.
Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron
ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas. Exports: $46.27 billion
(2011 est.): copper, gold, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, crude petroleum,
petroleum products, natural gas, coffee, potatoes, asparagus and other
vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fish meal. Imports: $36.97 billion
(2010 est.): petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery,
vehicles, color TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and
telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products,
paper, cotton, vaccines, medicines..
Major trading partners: U.S., China, Brazil, Ecuador, Argentina. (2010).
Costitution:since December 29 ,1993
Type of Goverment : Constitutional Republic
president is chose for five years (not eligible for consecutive reelection) The
republic Congress is unicameral with 120 seats, the members are elected by
popular vote for five years, the Supreme Court or Supreme Court, 8 judges are
nominated by the National Council of the Judiciary). The Head of State and
Government Ollanta Humala Tasso (president since 2011)
The Inca Empire and Spanish Conquest
When the Spanish landed in 1531, Peru's territory was the nucleus of the highly
developed Inca civilization. Centered at Cuzco, the Incan Empire extended over a
vast region from northern Ecuador to central Chile. In search of Inca wealth,
the Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro, who arrived in the territory after the
Incas had fought a debilitating civil war, conquered the weakened people. The
Spanish captured the Incan capital at Cuzco by 1533, and consolidated their
control by 1542. Gold and silver from the Andes enriched the conquerors, and
Peru became the principal source of Spanish wealth and power in South America.
Pizarro founded Lima in 1535. The viceroyalty established at Lima in 1542
initially had jurisdiction over all of the Spanish colonies in South America. By
the time of the wars of independence (1820-24), Lima had become one of the most
distinguished and aristocratic colonial capitals and the chief Spanish
stronghold in the Americas (along with Mexico City).
Jose de San Martin of Argentina and Simon Bolivar of Venezuela led Peru's
independence struggle. San Martin proclaimed Peruvian independence from Spain on
July 28, 1821. Emancipation was completed in December 1824, when Venezuelan
Marshall Antonio Jose de Sucre defeated a Spanish army at Ayacucho, ending
Spain's rule in South America. Spain subsequently made futile attempts to regain
its former colonies, but in 1879 it finally recognized Peru's independence.
After independence, Peru and its neighbors engaged in intermittent territorial
disputes. Chile's victory over Peru and Bolivia in the War of the Pacific
(1879-83) resulted in a territorial settlement in which Peru ceded the
department of Tarapaca and the provinces of Tacna and Arica to Chile. In 1929,
Chile returned Tacna to Peru. Following a clash between Peru and Ecuador in
1941, the Rio Protocol--of which the United States is one of four guarantors (along
with Argentina, Brazil, and Chile)--sought to establish the boundary between the
two countries. Continuing boundary disagreements led to brief armed conflicts in
early 1981 and early 1995, but in 1998 the governments of Peru and Ecuador
signed an historic peace treaty and demarcated the border. In late 1999, the
governments of Peru and Chile likewise implemented the last outstanding article
of their 1929 border agreement. Peru and Chile still dispute the maritime
PERU BEST TOURIST ATTRACTIONS
Peru is a country that has a variety of beautiful tourist attractions that
makes that the visitors get charmed and decide to travel for a second chance to
Peru. Peru has a variety of climates that allow the travelers to visit any time
of the year. If you decide to travel to Peru you check more information about
our tour packages.
Peru Tours :
Cusco & Machu
Inca Trail Hikes to
Puno & Titicaca Lake
Arequipa & Colca
Sipan Chan Chan
Comprehensive all Inclusive Package
Best tourist Attraction
Roman Catholic: 89%
other religions: 4% Peru is a naturally religious country: a diversity of
beliefs and freedom of worship can be seen from the wide range of festivals and
rituals that feature both Catholic fervor and the mysticism of age-old
The Dances of Peru are the dances whose origin or transformation occurred in
the Peruvian territory with elements of dance and instruments mainly from the
merger of the American Indian cultures, African and Hispanic.
The Spanish brought the Indian world the mandolin and guitar. The Indian
quickly mastered the mandolin and his eagerness to adapt this instrument and the
guitar to the interpretation of the music itself wayno, k'aswa, araskaska,
harawi ...-creates the charango and kirkincho, the image of the mandolin and
guitar. The harp and the violin were conquered by the Indian as Io received from
the invaders. Now the harp, violin, mandolin, charango the kirkincho and are,
with the flute, the pinkuyllo, the antara and tinya, Indian instruments. Soul
and holiday cheer. Or when the penalty goes to the houses and villages, the
charango and the cry for the Indian kirkincho with such force and with the same
desperation that the flute and the pinkuyllo.
- El Arpa Andina
- El Charango
- El Cajón Peruano
- La Quena
- La Zampoña
- La guitarra
Peruvian cuisine is considered one of the most varied and richest in the
world. Thanks to inheritance pre Inca Inca and Spanish immigrants, African,
Sino-Cantonese, Japanese and Italian mainly to the nineteenth century, together,
mixing and acriolla a cuisine and exquisite flavors of four continents,
providing a unique and impressive variety of dishes typical Peruvian cuisine is
constantly changing, impossible to enumerate in full. Suffice it to say that
only in the Peruvian coast, there are over two thousand different soups.
It is common knowledge around the world that Peruvian cuisine has already found
a place within the world's most recognized. It has recently been published in
English on the Epicurious website, an important article on the benefits and
importance of our kitchen. We reproduce part of the publication: "As they say,
everything old has become new. And in the case of Peru, when we say "old" we
mean old. One example of how our chefs are looking to the Andean roots, is the
novel use which gives quinoa, a grain that dates back to the Incas, with a
slight nutty flavor and 3000 years old, aptly named "Wonderful food," low in
carbohydrates and high in protein.
Any person who makes tourism in Peru, it is immediately captured by the rich
local cuisine, and if you are a gourmet, always looks for an excuse to go back
and enjoy a new taste.
The Peruvian cuisine is a fusion of the way the Spanish cook with that of the
native Peruvians. Commodities such as potatoes, corn, peanuts, peppers, and
seafood from our sea, dating back to the Inca Empire, which flourished in the
Andes for thousands of years. When the Spanish conquistadors arrived in the 16th
century, brought with them European style desserts and other ingredients such as
chicken, beef and citrus fruits. Later immigrants arrived Africans, Italians,
Chinese and Japanese that helped create a tasty meal that is eaten so far in
homes and Peruvian restaurants.
Ceviche: Combination of seafood marinated in lemon juice.
Tacu Tacu: Mix beans and rice usually served with a steak.
Lomo Saltado: Cuts of meat that is fried with onion and tomato.
Pescado a lo Macho: Baked fish fillet drizzled with tomato sauce.
Aguadito de Mariscos: Combination seafood with green sauce.
Jalea Mixta: The seafood of your choice breaded and deep-fried.
At the following links you will find more information about other destinations.
* Lake Titicaca Facts
* Machu Picchu Facts
* Rainforest Facts