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For regular news on Peruvian politics and other matters, subscribe to the Peru Support Group , 37-39 Great Guildford Street, London SE1 OES, UK (tel 020/7620-1103, fax 7261-9291, perusupport@ Established in 1983, the Peru Support Group aims to promote the rights and interests of the people of Peru, in particular the poorest sectors. Apart […]

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20,000-10,000 BC First evidence of human settlement in Peru. Cave dwellings in the Ayacucho Valley; stone artefacts in the Chillon Valley. 8000-5000 BC Nomadic tribes , and more permanent settlement in fertile coastal areas. Cave paintings and fine stone tools. 5000-2000 BC Introduction of cultivation and stable settlements. Early agricultural sites include Huaca Prieta in […]

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The run-up to the elections of April 9, 2000, was marked by Fujimori’s controversial decision to stand for a third term of office, despite the Peruvian Constitution only allowing for two continuous terms. His rationale was that since the Constitution was introduced during his second term, he was entitled to stand for one more. However, […]

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By the late nineteenth century Peru’s foreign debt, particularly to England, had grown enormously. Even though interest could be paid in guano, there simply wasn’t enough. To make matters considerably worse, Peru went to war with Chile in 1879. Lasting over four years, this ” War of the Pacific ” was basically a battle for […]

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San Martín immediately assumed political control of the fledgling nation. Under the title Protector of Peru he set about devising a workable constitution for the new nation – at one point even considering importing European royalty to establish a new monarchy. A libertarian as well as a liberator, San Martín declared freedom for slaves’ children, […]

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Queen Isabella of Spain indirectly laid the original foundations for the political administration of Peru in 1503 when she authorized the initiation of an encomienda system , which meant that successful Spanish conquerors could extract tribute for the Crown and personal service in return for converting the natives to Christianity. They were not, however, given […]

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With the Inca Empire (1200-1532) came the culmination of the city-building phase and the beginnings of a kind of Peruvian unity, with the Incas, although originally no more than a tribe of around forty thousand, gradually taking over each of the separate coastal empires. One of the last to go – almost bloodlessly, and just […]

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A diverse period – and one marked by intense development in almost every field – the Classical Era (200-1100 AD) saw the emergence of numerous distinct cultures, both on the coast and in the sierra. The best documented, though not necessarily the most powerful, are the Moche and Nasca cultures (both probably descendants of the coastal Paracas culture) and […]

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The first Peruvians were descendants of the nomadic tribes which had crossed into the Americas during the last Ice Age (40,000-15,000 BC), when a combination of ice packs and low sea levels exposed a neck of solid “land” to span what’s now the Bering Strait. Following herds of game animals from Siberia into what must […]

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The Rebellion

When the Hapsburg monarchy gave way to the Bourbon kings in Spain at the beginning of the eighteenth century, shivers of protest seemed to reverberate deep in the Peruvian hinterland. There were a number of serious native rebellions against colonial rule during the next hundred years. One of the most important, though least known, was […]

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The 1990

Elections in 1990 proved to be a turning point for Peru. In the run-up to them there were four main candidates: the popular and internationally renowned author Mario Vargas Llosa, with his new right-wing coalition, Fredemo; Luís Alvacastro, general secretary of APRA (and minister in charge of the economy under Garcia); Alfonso Barrantes in control […]

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By now, many intellectuals and government officials saw the agrarian situation as an urgent economic problem as well as a matter of social justice. Even the army believed that land reform was a prerequisite for the development of a larger market, without which any genuine industrial development would prove impossible. On October 3, 1968, tanks […]

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Peru Chavin Cult

From around 1200 BC to 200 AD – the Formative Era – agriculture and village life became established. Ceramics were invented, and a slow disintegration of regional isolation began. This last factor was due mainly to the widespread dispersal of a religious movement, the Chavín Cult . Remarkable in that it seems to have spread […]

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Peru twentieth century

Modern Peru is generally considered to have been born in 1895 with the forced resignation of General Caceres. However, the seeds of industrial development had been laid under his rule, albeit by foreigners. In 1890 an international plan was formulated to bail Peru out of its bankruptcy. The Peruvian Corporation was formed in London and […]

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THE 1970 AND 1980

After twelve years of military government the 1980 elections resulted in a centre-right alliance between Acción Popular and the Popular Christian Party. Belaunde resumed the presidency having become an established celebrity during his years of exile and having built up, too, an impressive array of international contacts. The policy of his government was to increase […]

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Francisco Pizarro , along with two dozen soldiers, stumbled upon and named the Pacific Ocean in 1513 while on an exploratory expedition in Panama. From that moment his determination, fired by native tales of a fabulously rich land to the south, was set. Within eleven years he had found himself financial sponsors and set sail […]

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