PERU TRAVEL PLANNER
The Spanish conquest
Francisco Pizarro , along with two dozen soldiers, stumbled
upon and named the Pacific Ocean in 1513 while on an exploratory expedition in
Panama. From that moment his determination, fired by native tales of a
fabulously rich land to the south, was set. Within eleven years he had found
himself financial sponsors and set sail down the Pacific coast with the priest
Hernando de Luque and Diego Almagro.
With remarkable determination, having survived several disastrous attempts, the
three explorers eventually landed at Tumbes in 1532. A few months later a small
band of Spaniards, totalling less than 170 men, arrived at the Inca city of
Cajamarca to meet the leader of what they were rapidly realizing was a mighty
empire. En route to Cajamarca, Pizarro had learned of the Inca civil wars and of
Atahualpa's recent victory over his brother Huascar. This rift within the empire
provided the key to success that Pizarro was looking for.
The day after their arrival, in what at first appeared to be a lunatic endeavour,
Pizarro and his men massacred thousands of Inca warriors and captured Atahualpa.
Although ridiculously outnumbered, the Spaniards had the advantages of surprise,
steel, cannons and, above all, mounted cavalry. The decisive battle was over in
a matter of hours: with Atahualpa prisoner, Pizarro was effectively in control
of the Inca Empire. Atahualpa was promised his freedom if he could fill the
famous ransom room at Cajamarca with gold. Caravans overladen with the precious
metal arrived from all over the land and within six months the room was filled:
a treasure worth over one and a half million pesos, which was already enough to
make each of the conquerors extremely wealthy. Pizarro, however, chose to keep
the Inca leader as a hostage in case of Indian revolt, amid growing suspicions
that Atahualpa was inciting his generals to attack the Spanish. Atahualpa almost
certainly did send messages to his chiefs in Cusco, including orders to execute
his brother Huascar who was already in captivity there. Under pressure from his
worried captains, Pizarro brought Atahualpa to trial in July 1533, a mockery of
justice in which he was given a free choice: to be burned alive as a pagan or
strangled as a Christian. They baptized him and then killed him.
With nothing left to keep him in Cajamarca, Pizarro made his way through the
Andes to Cusco where he crowned a puppet emperor, Manco Inca , of royal Indian
blood. After all the practice that the Spaniards had had in imposing their
culture on both the Moors in Spain and the Aztecs in Mexico, it took them only a
few years to replace the Inca Empire with a working colonial mechanism. Now that
the Inca civil wars were over, the natives seemed happy to retire quietly into
the hills and get back to the land. However, more than wars, disease was
responsible for the almost total lack of initial reaction to the new conquerors.
The native population had dropped from some 32 million in 1520 to only five
million by 1548 - a decline due mainly to new European ailments such as
smallpox, measles, bubonic plague, whooping cough and influenza.