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The Spanish conquest

Francisco Pizarro , along with two dozen soldiers, stumbled upon and named the Pacific Ocean in 1513 while on an exploratory expedition in Panama. From that moment his determination, fired by native tales of a fabulously rich land to the south, was set. Within eleven years he had found himself financial sponsors and set sail down the Pacific coast with the priest Hernando de Luque and Diego Almagro.

With remarkable determination, having survived several disastrous attempts, the three explorers eventually landed at Tumbes in 1532. A few months later a small band of Spaniards, totalling less than 170 men, arrived at the Inca city of Cajamarca to meet the leader of what they were rapidly realizing was a mighty empire. En route to Cajamarca, Pizarro had learned of the Inca civil wars and of Atahualpa's recent victory over his brother Huascar. This rift within the empire provided the key to success that Pizarro was looking for.

The day after their arrival, in what at first appeared to be a lunatic endeavour, Pizarro and his men massacred thousands of Inca warriors and captured Atahualpa. Although ridiculously outnumbered, the Spaniards had the advantages of surprise, steel, cannons and, above all, mounted cavalry. The decisive battle was over in a matter of hours: with Atahualpa prisoner, Pizarro was effectively in control of the Inca Empire. Atahualpa was promised his freedom if he could fill the famous ransom room at Cajamarca with gold. Caravans overladen with the precious metal arrived from all over the land and within six months the room was filled: a treasure worth over one and a half million pesos, which was already enough to make each of the conquerors extremely wealthy. Pizarro, however, chose to keep the Inca leader as a hostage in case of Indian revolt, amid growing suspicions that Atahualpa was inciting his generals to attack the Spanish. Atahualpa almost certainly did send messages to his chiefs in Cusco, including orders to execute his brother Huascar who was already in captivity there. Under pressure from his worried captains, Pizarro brought Atahualpa to trial in July 1533, a mockery of justice in which he was given a free choice: to be burned alive as a pagan or strangled as a Christian. They baptized him and then killed him.

With nothing left to keep him in Cajamarca, Pizarro made his way through the Andes to Cusco where he crowned a puppet emperor, Manco Inca , of royal Indian blood. After all the practice that the Spaniards had had in imposing their culture on both the Moors in Spain and the Aztecs in Mexico, it took them only a few years to replace the Inca Empire with a working colonial mechanism. Now that the Inca civil wars were over, the natives seemed happy to retire quietly into the hills and get back to the land. However, more than wars, disease was responsible for the almost total lack of initial reaction to the new conquerors. The native population had dropped from some 32 million in 1520 to only five million by 1548 - a decline due mainly to new European ailments such as smallpox, measles, bubonic plague, whooping cough and influenza.


 


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Testimonials


Frank
Date: Thursday, October 23rd 2014

Dear Yenseng
We are home and we like to use the opportunity to thank you for everything.
Throughout our planning...


Sue
Date: Sunday, October 05th 2014

Luis, I just wanted to say thank you for a wonderful Peruvian experience. We all had an amazing time through all the tours...


Karen Fitchpatrick
Date: Tuesday, September 30th 2014

Hi Yenseng. Just wanted to let you know that we had a really awesome trip. Everything was so well organized and scheduled that we were able ...


Wojtek
Date: Thursday, August 28th 2014

Hello Luis, I am writting to you to share my opinion about our stay in your Country.
First of all, I want to thank you for your assistance in preparing our beautiful trip...


Melanie Friesen
Date: Saturday, July 12th 2014

Hi Luis, First of all I want to thank you for putting together a great tour. We had a wonderful time...


Tatyana Ukhanova
Date: Tuesday, Jun 24th 2014

Dear Yenseng, we had a wonderful trip to Peru. Thank you so much. Unforgettable time! ...


Alex Beric
Date: Saturday, Jun 07th 2014

Thank you very much for organizing our exciting trip to Peru. Everything was flawless and we enjoyed our trip tremendously...


Andrea
Date Thurday, May 28th 2014

Thank you for the follow-up email. My friend and I enjoyed our trip immensely! The various tours were well organized and nicely presented...


Tasso
Date : Thurday, May 28th 2014

We had a great time in Peru. And your staff and service was fantastic.
We really appreciated the personalised pick-ups from the hotels...


Alina
Date: Sunday, May 18th 2014

This is Alina- nice to write to you again. Recently we came back from our long five countries vacation...


Matthew Williams
Date: Tuesday; May 13th 2014

Thank you for making our trip so wonderful and accommodating. Our tour guide in Machu Picchu was wonderfully entertaining and informative...


Margaret and Roy
Date: Monday, April 9th, 2014

We have returned to Australia from our trip to Peru and Chile. We would like to thank you very much...


Cheryl
Date: Saturday, March 22th, 2014

Just a note to thank you for doing such an exceptional job coordinating all the pickups etc. that we needed to complete our trip from the ship to Machu Picchu...


Lilliana Layton
Date : Saturday, February 1st, 2014

Luis. Absolutely! I will recommend you guys highly! You were nothing but amazing and responsive...


Efrain Jimenez
Date : Friday, January 31st, 2014

Hello Patricia I just wanted to thank you and let you know I had a great time in Peru everyone was nice and helpful...


Nicholas Malamas
Date : Saturday, January 10th, 2014

Luis, I just wanted to write and thank you and Peru Gateway Travel for planning a wonderful trip to Cusco...


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