In the heart of the
district of San Isidro stands the archaeological complex of Huallamarca.
Hualla in the quechua tongue means "uneven" and marca stands for "village",
because in its first times this complex presented a structure sustained over
spiraled ramps. In the year of 1999, several pieces of pottery were
unearthed, possibly indicating a near-by burial of some important character.
An aspect that is common to almost all the important Huacas of Lima is that
there are many young archaeologists still working on them, along with some
non professional people that voluntarily offer their time and efforts. That
is the case of the Huaca Pucllana, nowadays a Historical and Cultural Park,
located in the District of Miraflores. This complex was the ceremonial and
administrative centre of the Lima culture (around 400 A.D.) which held the
control of the valley. The evidences at hand point out that many activities
of religious cult, rites and sacrifices to worship their gods took place
here. It is also possible that the residences of the governing priests were
located in this place. The Pucllana Historical Park includes a museum and
areas of research, preservation, restoration and cultural promotion, the
latter with the task of motivating the community, starting from childhood,
to create a conscience of respect and pride for their natural and
HUACA PUCLLANA O JULIANA
Is a great adobe and clay pyramid located in the Miraflores district of
central Lima, Peru, built from seven staggering platforms. It takes its name
from the Quechua word “pucllay,” meaning “game,” which in its entirety can
be translated as “a place for ritual games.” It served as an important
ceremonial and administrative center for the advancement of the Lima
Culture, a society which developed in the Peruvian Central Coast between the
years of 200 AD and 700 AD.
This Huaca was an administrative and ceremonial centre to the inhabitants of
the valley of Rímac, during the Intermedio Temprano and until the early
Horizonte Medio (5th to 8th centuries A.D.)
The main building of this complex is 500 meters long, more than 100 meters
wide and 22 meters high. It is a solid truncated pyramid, entirely built
over a base of stuffed and compressed soil and small adobe bricks. Moreover,
the complex is surrounded by a number of precincts of lesser size but
altogether notable: rooms, galleries, patios and ramps, generally richly
pasted in mud and, in some cases, with traces of yellow paint.
This important archaeological compound, only a little smaller than Pucllana:
the Huaca Huallamarca or Pan de Azúcar (Sugar Bread), an adobe scaled
pyramid with an impressive access ramp.
A pyramidal shaped Ceremonial Centre of pre-Inca times contains a museum
that exhibits artifacts that were found in the site.
Apparently, Huallamarca was a ceremonial centre whose access was possibly
restricted to a religious elite, in view of the fact that the uncovered
floors show little wear from use. A long sequence of employment and
abandonment of this Huaca reveals the different ways in which the funerary
practices changed through time.
During the historical period called the Intermedio Temprano (Early
Intermediate), the dead were buried laying on their back on mattresses of
reeds Towards the 6th century A.D. the corpses were put in a flexed way,
giving them a fetal position and wrapped in fine fabrics. And during the
last stages of the Horizonte Medio (epochs 3 and 4), the dead were wrapped
in fardos or bundles with a false head above, a sort of mask made of painted
fabric or wood.
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