Nazca is one of the most important cultures in Peru. This Civilization was located in the Nazca region, department of Ica. They dominated the valleys of Chincha, Pisco, Ica and Nazca. Appears around 2,000 years ago near to the coast the mountains of Southwest Peru.
This civilization it´s divided in two periods of time:
Early Nazca – Middle Nazca
The early Nazca, people in this period of time were dedicated in agriculture self-sufficient, trade and fishing. In agriculture they made significant development in underground irrigation systems. The villages had a unique style, specific rituals and burial custom. Cahuachi is the major ceremonial center, it developed between 400 B.C and it was used to agriculture ritual ceremonies and considered by scientist as a “Largest adobe city in the world”. Cahuachi is an enormous place, including some 370 acres in area, dominated by a central pyramid and plaza. This place was studied by Italian archaeologist Giuseppe Orefici who discovered at least 5000 tombs.
The middle Nazca phase it is characterized because it appeared many changes, Cahuachi became less important, settlement patterns and the ways of irrigation changed too. The government was no able to centralize all population. At the end of this period of time Nazca the social complexity increased and the warfare led to the movement people away from their territory.
The Nazca culture are known because of their beautiful polychrome pottery and painted with at least 15 distinct colors. They took all their knowledge from Paracas culture. They’re known as an excellent craftsmen and their textile art was very elaborate with amazing designs and beautiful colors. Furthermore in times of war, they elaborated an incredible mortuary ritual that consists in modify skulls from their fallen enemies and create Trophy heads, and scientist found more than 150 Trophy heads.
The ancient Nazca is probably known in the entire world by their geoglyphs (or lines of Nazca) that it inscribed on the high desert plain. There are many of this geoglyphs in the Pampa region. The lines were first noticed in the modern era when airplanes began flying over the Peruvian desert in the 1920s. They were designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994.
This line were studied by many scientist and all of them has different kind of hypothesis but there are two hypotheses that are the most widely accepted and is the first lad and me Maria Reiche who explains that Lines should show in direction of the rising of important stars and planetary events like sun solstices. Figures like the spider and the monkey could show star constellations like Orion and Ursa Mayor.The big problem of all astronomical theories is the unknowing of the age.
The theory is from Simone Waisbard writes that the drawings of Nazca are a giant astronomical calendar. Further the Nazca-line-system was used to measure the precipitation.
To see all this lines you must fly over from Nazca, Ica, because in another way it would be impossible. To admire all this things, see the beautiful landscape. The museums which have many of the artifacts discovered. To appreciate the ceramic, textile and the trophy heads, you can visit Peru – Ica and discover by yourself all the magic and history in one place. For everybody it´s time to learn and understand the thrust of history and only knowing this we can share and respect us each other.